Battle of Sargarhi

Saragarhi is the incredible story of 21 men of the 36th Sikh Regiment (currently the 4th Sikh Regiment) who gave up their lives in devotion to their duty. In keeping with the tradition of the Indian Army they fought to the death rather than surrender.

The Saragarhi Battle is one of eight stories of collective bravery published by UNESCO. It has been mentioned as one of the five most significant events of its kind in the world which includes the Saga of Thermoplyae associated with the heroic stand of a small Greek force against the mighty Persian Army of Xerxes in 480 BC.

Saragarhi Martyrs

  1. 165 Havildar Ishar Singh
  2. 332 Naik Lal Singh
  3. 834 Sepoy Narayan Singh
  4. 546 Lance Naik Chanda
  5. 814 Sepoy Gurmukh Singh
  6. 1321 Sepoy Sundar Singh
  7. 871 Sepoy Jivan Singh
  8. 287 Sepoy Ram Singh
  9. 1733 Sepoy Gurmukh Singh
  10. 492 Sepoy Uttar Singh
  11. 163 Sepoy Ram Singh
  12. 182 Sepoy Sahib Singh
  13. 1257 Sepoy Bhagwan Singh
  14. 359 Sepoy Hira Singh
  15. 1265 Sepoy Bhagwan Singh
  16. 687 Sepoy Daya Singh
  17. 1556 Sepoy Buta Singh
  18. 760 Sepoy Jiwan Singh
  19. 1651 Sepy Hivan Singh
  20. 791 Sepoy Bhola Singh
  21. 1221 Sepoy Nand Singh

The British colonial rulers had constructed a series of forts to control the NWFP (North West Frontier Province - today located in Pakistan) and to provide security to troops against marauding tribesmen and their lashkars (large body of troops). Most of these forts had initially been built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh as part of the consolidation of the Sikh empire in Punjab and the British added some more.

The British had only partially succeeded in gaining control over this region, consequently, skirmishes and sometimes serious fights with the tribals were a frequent occurrence. However, the NWFP was a good training ground for the Indian Army to hone its skills and techniques.

Two such forts on the Samana ridge of the Hindukush & Sulaiman ranges that is Fort Lockhart and Fort Gulistan were a few miles apart. Since these forts were not inter-visible, a signalling "relay post" called Saragarhi was located mid-way on a bluff to provide heliographic communications between them. This post or picket had been fortified to provide safety and protection to the signalling detachment.

In 1897 there was a general uprising in the NWFP engineered by Afghans as part of their policy, which came to be known as the "prickly heat policy" to direct the wrath of the tribals against the British. In this uprising, Mullahs (Muslim religious leaders) played a prominent role.

It was the duty of the 36th Sikh to occupy Gulistan and Lockhart forts. On 3rd and 9th September 1897, Orakazai and Afridi lashkars attacked Fort Gulistan. On both occasion the attacks were beaten back. A relief column was sent from the fort to assist in beating back these attacks.

-Photograph of Saragarhi Post after the epic battle

The relief column from Lockhart on the return trip reinforced the signaling detachment at Saragarhi making its strength to 1 NCO (Non-Commissioned Officer) and 20 other ranks. In a renewed effort, on September 12, 1897, hordes of tribesmen laid siege to Fort Lockhart and Saragarhi, with the aim of overrunning the latter and at the same time preventing any help from the former. The Commanding Officer of 36th Sikh, Lt. Col. Haughton, was at Fort Lockhart and was in communication with the Saragarhi post through helciograph.

The defenders of Saragarhi under the indomitable and inspiring leadership of their detachment commander, Havildar Ishar Singh, resolved to defend their post in the best tradition of their race and regiment. They were not there to hand over the post to the enemy and seek safety elsewhere. Ishar and his men knew well that the post would fall, because a handful of men in that make-shift fort of stones & mud walls with a wooden door could not stand the onslaught of thousands of tribesmen. These plucky men knew that they will go down but they had resolved to do so fighting to the last.

From Fort Lockhart, troops and the Commanding Officer could count at least 14 standards and that gave an idea of the number of tribes and their massed strength against the Saragarhi relay post (estimated at between 10,000 to 12,000 tribals). From early morning the tribals started battering the fort. The Sikhs fought back valiantly. Charge after charge was repulsed. The tribal leaders started to make tempting promises so that the Sikhs would surrender. But Ishar and his men ignored them. For quite some time, the troops held their own against the determined and repeated attacks by the wild and ferocious hordes. A few attempts were made to send a relief column from Fort Lockhart but these were foiled by the tribals.

At Saragarhi, the enemy made two determined attempts to rush the gate of the post and on both occasions the defenders repulsed the assault. While the enemy suffered heavy casualties, the ranks of the defenders too kept dwindling as the fire from the attackers took its toll and their ammunition stocks were depleting.

Unmindful of his safety, Sepoy Gurmukh Singh kept signalling a minute-to-minute account of the battle from the signal tower in the post to battalion headquarters. The battle lasted the better part of the day. When repeated attacks failed, the enemy set fire to the surrounding bushes & shrubs and two of the tribesmen under cover of smoke, managed to close in with the post's boundary wall in an area blind to the defender's observation and rifle fire from the post holes. They succeeded in making a breach in the wall. This development could be seen from Fort Lockhart and was flashed to the post.

-Cairn on the Site of Saragarhi Post

A few men from those defending the approaches to the gate were dispatched to deal with the breach in the wall. This diversion by the enemy and the defenders' reaction resulted in weakening of the fire covering the gate. The enemy now rushed the gate as well as the breach.

Thereafter, one of the fiercest hand to hand fight followed. One of the Ishar's men who was seriously wounded and was profusely bleeding had taken charge of the guardroom. He shot four of the enemy as they tried to approach his charge. All this time, Sepoy Gurmukh Singh continued flashing the details of the action at the post. Beside this the Commanding Officer of 36th Sikh and others at Lockhart Fort also saw his unique saga of heroism and valour unfold at Saragarhi.

The battle had come too close for Gurmukh Singh's comfort, so he asked battalion headquarters for permission to shut down the heliograph and take up his rifle. Permission was flashed back. Gurmukh Singh dismounted his heliograph equipment, packed it in a leather bag, fixed bayonet on his rifle and joined the fight. From this vantage point in the tower he wrought havoc on the intruders in the post. He died fighting, but took 20 of the enemy with him.

The tribals set fire to the post, while the brave garrison lay dead or dying with their ammunition exhausted. Next morning the relief column reached the post and the tell tale marks of the epic fight were there for all to see. The tribals later admitted to figure of 180 dead and many more wounded.

This episode when narrated in the British Parliament, drew from the members a standing ovation in the memory of the defenders of Saragarhi. The story of the heroic deeds of these men was also placed before Queen Victoria. The account was received all over the world with awe and admiration.

All the 21 valiant men of this epic battle were awarded the Indian Order of Merit Class I (posthumously) which at the time was the highest gallantry award given to Indian troops and was considered equivalent to the Victoria Cross and the present day Param Vir Chakra, India's highest valour medal. All dependants of the Saragarhi heroes were awarded 50 acres of land and 500 Rupees. Gurdwara of Sargarhi

The Government of India have caused this tablet to be erected to the memory of the twenty one non-commissioned officers and men of the 36 Sikh Regiment of Bengal Infantry whose names are engraved below as a perpetual record of the heroism shown by these gallant soldiers who died at their posts in defence of the fort of Saragarhi, on the 12 September 1897, fighting against overwhelming numbers, gloriously maintaining the reputation of the Sikhs for unflinching courage on the field of battle.


  1. Nishaan 1/2002 from article "The epic battle of Saragarhi" written by Amandeep Singh Madra.
  2. A Website about Indian military.